• Name: Chang Yu, PhD, Associate Professor, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Email: chang.yu@vanderbilt.edu
  • Phone: (615)322-8422
  • Fax: (615)343-4924
  • Address:
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
    Department of Biostatistics
    2525 West End, Ste. 11000
    Nashville, TN 37203


  • PhD in Biostatistics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
  • BS, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China


  • 2011 to present, Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • 2004 to 2011, Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • 1998 to 2003, Biometrician/Senior Biometrician, Department of Biostatistics and Research Decision Science, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey.
  • 1995 to 1998, Biostatistician, Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, CT

Methodological Interests

  • Distributions and Methods on Correlated Binary Data

My methods wrok focuses on deriving new discrete distributions for sums of dependent Bernoulli random variables. When the Bernoulli random variables are independent, it is well known that the sum follows a binomial distribution. But when these variables are dependent, there is not much in the literature beyond the beta-binomial distribution. We developed several models for the sum to account for the dependence among Bernoulli random variables. General results for these models include recursive relationships for their mass functions and moments. The beta-binomial distribution is a special case of the recursive relationship (Yu and Zelterman, 2002a). In Yu and Zelterman (2008), we further develop new families of discrete distributions to model sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our exponential tail distribution allows for negative correlation among the Bernoulli random variables. Some of the works are cited in Univariate Discrete Distributions, 3rd edition (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics) by N. L. Johnson, A. W. Kemp, S. Kotz, 2005.

Other methods research area that I touched:

  • Distributions for p-Values and their applications
  • Survival models for immuno-oncology research
  • Measurement error correction methods
  • Statistical methods for microarray data analysis
  • Permutation tests
  • Sampling methods
  • Meta-analysis methods

Drug Efficacy and Safety Evaluation

  • Drug development
I had five and a half years of experience working on phase I, II, III, and IV clinical trials at Merck Research Laboratories. At Merck I worked on new drug application (NDA) and supplemental NDA filings to FDA and other regulatory agencies for Singulair (a good drug), Vioxx (perhaps you have heard the story, but I was on the GI safety side), and etoricoxib (approved in Europe, but not in US).
  • Bayesian adaptive study design
I am leading the effort on Bayesian adaptive study designs in the department. We have successfully designed such studies for both NIH submissions and industry-sponsored studies.

Editorial Board

  • Associate Editor, Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice
  • Statistical Advisory Board, PLOS one

Statistical Methods developed and implemented in a R package, Genetic Analysis Package

R functions: PFC and PFC.SIM based on Yu and Zelterman (2001), and

R function: HWE_CC based on Yu, Zhang, Zhou, Sile (2009) can be found at


Statistical Publications

Yu C, Huang X, Nian H, He P. A weighted log-rank test for cancer trials with delayed treatment effect. Pharmaceutical statistics 2020 (accepted).

Yu C and Zelterman D. Distributions Associated with Simultaneous Multiple Hypothesis Testing. Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications 2020, 7:9.

Nian H, Yu C, Ding J, Wu H, Dupont W, Brunwasser S, Gebretsadik T, Hartert T, Wu P. Performance Evaluation of Propensity Score Methods for Estimating Average Treatment Effects with Multi-level Treatments. Journal of Applied Statistics 2019, 46(5):853-873.

Yu C and Zelterman D. A parametric meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine 2019, 38(21):4013-4025.

Chang Yu and Daniel Zelterman. A general approximation to quantile. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 46(19):9834-9841, 2017.

Chang Yu, Sanguo Zhang, Christine M. Friedenreich, and Charles E. Matthews. Using repeated measures to correct correlated measurement errors through orthogonal decomposition. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 46(23):11604-11611, 2017.

Chang Yu and Daniel Zelterman. A parametric model to estimate the proportion from the null in microarray studies using a distribution for p-values, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis , 114:105-118, 2017.

B. E. Shepherd and C. Yu. Accounting for Data Errors Discovered from an Audit in Multiple Linear Regression. Biometrics, 67:10831091, 2011.

Chang Yu, Sanguo Zhang, Chuan Zhou, and Saba Sile. A Likelihood Ratio Test of Population Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium for Case-Control Studies. Genetic Epidemiology 33:275-280, 2009.

Wei Ning, Sanguo Zhang, Chang Yu. A Moment-based Test for the Homogeneity in Natural Exponential Family with Quadratic Variance Functions. Statistics & Probability Letters 79:828-834, 2009.

Wei Ning, Arjun.K. Gupta, Chang Yu, Sanguo Zhang. A Moment-based Test for Homogeneity in Finite Mixture Models. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods 38:9,1371-1382, 2009.

C. Yu and D. Zelterman. Sums of Exchangeable Bernoulli Random Variables for Family and Litter Frequency Data, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 52:1636-49, 2008.

C. Yu and D. Zelterman. Sums of Dependent Bernoulli Random Variables and Disease Clustering, Statistics and Probability Letters, 57(4):363-373, 2002. This paper is cited in Univariate Discrete Distributions, 3rd edition (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics) by N. L. Johnson, A. W. Kemp, S. Kotz, 2005.

C. Yu and D. Zelterman. Statistical Inference for Familial Disease Clusters, Biometrics, 58(3)481-491, 2002.

O. Davidov and C. Yu. Stratified Double Sampling with Continuous Outcomes: Design and Analysis, Statistics, 36(2):163-173, 2002.

C. Yu and D. Zelterman. Exact Inference for Family Disease Clusters, Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 30(11):2293-2305, 2001.

D. Zelterman and C. Yu. Multivariate Discrete Models for Longevity in Twins, The Institute for Mathematics and its Applications Volumes, Volume 114:131-140, Diagnosis and Prediction, Seymour Geisser(Editor), Springer-Verlag, 1999.

C. Yu, L. Waller, and D. Zelterman. Discrete Distributions for Use in Twin Studies, Biometrics 54:546-557, 1998. This paper is cited in Univariate Discrete Distributions, 3rd edition (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics) by N. L. Johnson, A. W. Kemp, S. Kotz, 2005.

S. Gupta, J. Goldstein, and C. Yu. Time Domain Estimation of Long Range Dependence, Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 18(3):493-498, 1997.

S. Gupta, J. Goldstein, and C. Yu. Fitting a Fractional ARIMA Model to Time Series Data, Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 17(3):467-483, 1996.

Selected Collaborative Publications

Cyndya A. Shibao, Luis E. Okamoto, Alfredo Gamboa, Chang Yu, Andre Diedrich, Satish R. Raj, David Robertson and Italo Biaggioni (2010). Comparative Efficacy of Yohimbine Against Pyridostigmine for the Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension in Autonomic Failure. Hypertension 2010, 56(5):847-51. Accompanied by an editorial commentary by Jens Jordan, What Rare Autonomic Disorders Can Teach Us About Human Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Hypertension 56(5)811-3.

Fleming GA, Murray KT, Yu C, Byrne JG, Greelish JP, Petracek MR, Hoff SJ, Ball SK, Brown NJ, Pretorius M. Milrinone use is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2008 Oct 14;118(16):1619-25.

J.A. Phillips III, J.S. Poling, C.A. Phillips, K. C. Stanton, E.D. Austin, J.D. Cogan, L. Wheeler, C. Yu, Dietz, H.C. and J. E. Loyd. Synergistic heterozygosity for TGF$\beta$1 SNPs and BMPR2 mutations modulates the age at diagnosis and penetrance of Familial Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (FPAH), Genetics in Medicine 10(5):359-65, 2008.

Saba Sile, Carlos G. Vanoye, Niloufar B. Gillani, Chang Yu, Loretta M. Byrne, James V. Gainer, Nancy J. Brown, Alfred L. George Jr. Lower Prevalence of Hypertension in African-Americans Carrying a Common BSND Variant, American Journal of Hypertension 2007 Nov;20(11):1176-1182.

Mias Pretorius, Brian S. Donahue, Chang Yu, James P. Greelish, Dan M. Roden, Nancy J. Brown. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 as a Predictor of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Circulation. 2007 Sep 11;116(11 Suppl):I1-7.

R. Hunt, S. Harper, D. J. Watson, C. Yu, H. Quan, M. Lee, J. Evans, B. Oxenius. The Gastrointestinal Safety of the COX-2 Selective Inhibitor Etoricoxib Assessed by Both Endoscopy and Analysis of Upper Gastrointestinal Events, American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98(8):1725-1733, 2003.

J. Zhang, C. Yu , S.T. Holgate, and T.F. Reiss. Variability and Lack of Predictive Ability of Asthma End-points in Clinical Trials, European Respiratory Journal, 20(5):1102-1109, 2002.

J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Noonan, T.F. Reiss. Montelukast, a Once-daily Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist, Significantly Reduced Peak Expiratory Flow Variability, Clinical Therapeutics, 24:574-582, 2002.

C. Boult, M. Altmann, D. Gilbertson, C. Yu, and R.L. Kane. Decreasing Disability in the 21st Century: The Future Effects of Controlling Six Fatal and Nonfatal Conditions, American Journal of Public Health, 86:1388-93, 1996.

Complete List of Published Work in My Bibliography:


  • American Statistical Association
  • Biometric Society (ENAR)
  • Sino-American Pharmaceutical Professionals Association
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Topic revision: r47 - 05 Dec 2020, ChangYu

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