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- To illustrate the main statistical concepts related to study design.
- To discuss with the basic method of using statistics to draw inferences about treatments and other factors.
- To illustrate the levels of evidence provided by different studies.
- To identify when to use different types of descriptive statistics.
- To learn what constitutes a good measure of change.
- To know where to find biostatistical resources in the School of Medicine at Vanderbilt

- To illustrate the basic logic behind hypothesis testing using a simple example.
- To discuss the notion of a null and alternative hypothesis.
- To discuss the notion of a P-value and statistical power.
- To demonstrate how sample size can influence statistical power.
- To illustrate the use of a confidence interval.

- To discuss simple linear regression.
- To discuss the use of regression models for prediction and inference.
- To discuss the use of multivariable techniques for statistical adjustment and improvements in inference.
- To fit nonlinear patterns in data through the use of piecewise polynomial regression models.

- To discuss the principles of experimental design as applied to biomedical research.
- To describe the issues involved in choosing an appropriate experimental design.
- To illustrate commonly used designs with examples drawn from current biomedical journal articles.
- To describe the advantages and disadvantages of conducting studies with repeated measurements.
- To describe the methods of analysis required by these designs.
- To discuss the issues in handling dropout or noncompliance,

- To calculate and interpret common measures of frequency used in clinical research, describe their relative merits, and know when they are appropriately used.
- To calculate and interpret common measures of effect used in clinical studies, describe their relative merits, and know when they are appropriately used.
- To interpret commonly reported confidence intervals associated with estimates of effect in clinical research.
- To understand the relative merits and appropriate use of experimental and non-experimental research designs, and the strength of evidence from each.
- Understand common sources of potential bias in clinical research, and common techniques for their minimization.

- Levine M, Walter S, Lee H, Haines T, Holbrook A, Moyer V. Users guides to the medical literature. IV. How to use an article about harm. JAMA 1994; 271: 1615-9
- Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, Cook DJ. Users guides to the medical literature.11. How to use an article about therapy or prevention.A. Are the results of the study valid? JAMA 1993; 270: 2598-601

- To describe some of the most frequent mistakes made in medical graphics.
- To discuss methods to better illustrate the point that poorly generated graphics were trying to make.
- To discuss methods to illustrate multiple variables.

- To discuss capabilities of statistical graphics software and how it can be used to inspect, explore, and summarize data.
- To become introduced to some ways that a statistician begins to examine data in an exploratory fashion.
- To clarify any remaining issues from the entire course.

Topic revision: r1 - 19 Aug 2004, FrankHarrell

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